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Company > Bank of Hawaii Corp: Business Model, SWOT Analysis, and Competitors 2023

Bank of Hawaii Corp: Business Model, SWOT Analysis, and Competitors 2023

Published: Jan 08, 2023

Inside This Article


    Bank of Hawaii Corp is a leading financial institution that operates in the Pacific region. This blog article will provide an in-depth analysis of the bank's business model, SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) analysis, and key competitors for the year 2023. With a strong focus on customer satisfaction and innovative solutions, Bank of Hawaii Corp has established itself as a trusted banking partner. By examining its strengths, weaknesses, potential growth opportunities, and competitive landscape, this article aims to offer valuable insights into the bank's current position and future prospects.

    What You Will Learn:

    • Who owns Bank of Hawaii Corp and how its ownership structure impacts the company's decision-making and operations.
    • The mission statement of Bank of Hawaii Corp and how it guides the organization's strategic direction and priorities.
    • How Bank of Hawaii Corp generates revenue and makes money through its various business activities and financial services offered.
    • An in-depth explanation of Bank of Hawaii Corp's business model canvas, including the key elements and components that drive its success.
    • The major competitors of Bank of Hawaii Corp in the banking industry and how they stack up against each other in terms of market share and performance.
    • A comprehensive SWOT analysis of Bank of Hawaii Corp, highlighting its strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, to better understand its current position and future prospects in the market.

    Who owns Bank of Hawaii Corp?

    Overview of Bank of Hawaii Corp ownership

    Bank of Hawaii Corp is a publicly traded company, meaning that its ownership is distributed among various shareholders who own shares of the company's stock. These shareholders can include individual investors, institutional investors, mutual funds, and other financial entities.

    Major institutional shareholders

    Several institutional shareholders hold significant stakes in Bank of Hawaii Corp. These institutional investors are typically large financial organizations that invest on behalf of their clients or manage their own assets. They often have substantial influence on the company's decisions and can play a crucial role in shaping its direction.

    One of the major institutional shareholders of Bank of Hawaii Corp is Vanguard Group Inc. As of the latest available information, Vanguard Group Inc holds a significant number of shares in the company, making it one of the largest institutional owners. Vanguard Group Inc is a well-known investment management company that provides services to individual and institutional investors across the globe.

    Another significant institutional shareholder is BlackRock Inc. BlackRock Inc is a global investment management corporation that manages assets for clients ranging from individual investors to large institutional investors. As one of the largest asset managers in the world, BlackRock Inc holds a substantial stake in Bank of Hawaii Corp.

    Individual shareholders

    Apart from institutional investors, Bank of Hawaii Corp also has individual shareholders who own shares in the company. These individual investors can range from retail investors who buy and sell stocks through brokerage accounts to high net worth individuals who have significant investments in various companies.

    Individual shareholders often have a personal interest in the company's performance and may play a role in shaping its direction through voting on significant matters during shareholder meetings.

    Employee ownership

    Bank of Hawaii Corp also offers employee stock ownership plans (ESOPs) as a way to encourage employee ownership and align their interests with the company's success. These ESOPs allow employees to purchase shares of the company's stock, often at a discounted price.

    Employee ownership can create a sense of loyalty, motivation, and accountability among employees, as they have a personal stake in the company's performance and value creation.


    In conclusion, Bank of Hawaii Corp is owned by a diverse group of shareholders, including institutional investors, individual investors, and its own employees. This ownership structure ensures a broad distribution of ownership and provides opportunities for various stakeholders to participate in the company's growth and success.

    What is the mission statement of Bank of Hawaii Corp?

    The Mission Statement of Bank of Hawaii Corp

    Bank of Hawaii Corp, one of the leading financial institutions in the Pacific region, is guided by a clear and concise mission statement that defines its purpose and aspirations. The bank's mission statement can be summarized as follows:

    "To provide exceptional financial services, products, and solutions to our customers, shareholders, employees, and communities, while maintaining the highest level of integrity and commitment."

    This mission statement serves as a compass, guiding the bank's decision-making processes and strategic initiatives. It encapsulates the core values that Bank of Hawaii Corp upholds, emphasizing its dedication to excellence and a customer-centric approach.

    Commitment to Customers:

    At the heart of Bank of Hawaii Corp's mission statement is its unwavering commitment to its customers. The bank aims to exceed customer expectations by providing exceptional financial services and solutions tailored to their unique needs. By fostering strong relationships and delivering top-notch customer service, Bank of Hawaii Corp strives to be the preferred financial partner for individuals, businesses, and communities across the Pacific region.

    Focus on Shareholders:

    Bank of Hawaii Corp recognizes the importance of creating long-term value for its shareholders. The mission statement highlights the bank's commitment to achieving sustainable growth and profitability. By effectively managing risk, optimizing resources, and delivering consistent financial performance, Bank of Hawaii Corp aims to generate attractive returns for its shareholders, fostering their trust and confidence in the bank's ability to deliver value.

    Employee Empowerment and Development:

    Bank of Hawaii Corp acknowledges that its employees are integral to its success. The mission statement underscores the bank's commitment to providing a supportive and inclusive work environment that values the contributions of its employees. By fostering an atmosphere of continuous learning and professional growth, Bank of Hawaii Corp empowers its employees to excel in their roles, ensuring their satisfaction and motivation to deliver exceptional service to customers.

    Community Engagement and Impact:

    Bank of Hawaii Corp recognizes its role as a responsible corporate citizen and strives to make a positive impact on the communities it serves. The mission statement emphasizes the bank's commitment to supporting local initiatives, charitable organizations, and community development projects. By actively engaging with community stakeholders, Bank of Hawaii Corp aims to contribute to the well-being and economic vitality of the communities it operates in.

    Integrity and Ethical Conduct:

    Integrity is a fundamental value embedded in Bank of Hawaii Corp's mission statement. The bank emphasizes the importance of maintaining the highest level of ethical conduct in all aspects of its operations. By upholding strong corporate governance practices, adhering to regulatory compliance, and maintaining transparency and accountability, Bank of Hawaii Corp aims to build trust and confidence among its stakeholders.

    In conclusion, Bank of Hawaii Corp's mission statement establishes its commitment to providing exceptional financial services to its customers, generating value for its shareholders, empowering its employees, making a positive impact on communities, and conducting business with integrity. This mission statement serves as a guiding principle for the bank, driving its strategic decisions and actions as it continues to serve as a trusted financial partner in the Pacific region.

    How does Bank of Hawaii Corp make money?

    Interest income from loans and investments

    One of the primary ways that Bank of Hawaii Corp generates revenue is through interest income from loans and investments. As a bank, it provides various types of loans to individuals, businesses, and organizations. These loans can include mortgages, personal loans, auto loans, and commercial loans, among others.

    The interest charged on these loans is a significant source of income for the bank. The interest rates are typically based on market conditions, creditworthiness of the borrower, and the term of the loan. Bank of Hawaii Corp carefully assesses the risk associated with each loan to determine the appropriate interest rate and ensure profitability.

    Additionally, the bank invests in various financial instruments such as bonds, stocks, and other securities. The returns generated from these investments contribute to the interest income. Bank of Hawaii Corp's investment strategy is based on prudent risk management and aims to maximize returns while maintaining a diversified portfolio.

    Fees and service charges

    Bank of Hawaii Corp also earns revenue through a variety of fees and service charges. Customers who hold checking or savings accounts may be subject to monthly maintenance fees or transaction fees based on the type and number of transactions conducted. The bank may also charge fees for services such as wire transfers, foreign currency exchange, safe deposit box rentals, and overdraft protection.

    Furthermore, Bank of Hawaii Corp offers a range of financial products and services beyond traditional banking. These include wealth management, insurance products, investment advisory services, and trust services. Fees associated with these services contribute to the bank's revenue stream.

    Credit card operations

    Bank of Hawaii Corp operates a credit card business, which is another significant source of revenue. It issues credit cards to individuals and businesses, earning income through interest charges on outstanding balances and various fees such as annual fees, late payment fees, and balance transfer fees.

    The bank carefully manages its credit card operations by evaluating credit risk and setting appropriate credit limits and interest rates. It also focuses on providing attractive rewards programs and benefits to attract and retain customers, which further enhances the profitability of its credit card business.

    Other sources of revenue

    Bank of Hawaii Corp may generate revenue through other sources such as foreign exchange transactions, investment banking activities, and asset management. Foreign exchange transactions involve buying and selling currencies, while investment banking activities include underwriting securities offerings and providing advisory services for mergers and acquisitions.

    Asset management involves managing investment portfolios on behalf of clients and charging fees based on the assets under management. These additional sources of revenue contribute to the overall profitability and diversification of Bank of Hawaii Corp's business.

    Bank of Hawaii Corp Business Model Canvas Explained


    The Business Model Canvas is a strategic management tool that provides a visual representation of how a company creates, delivers, and captures value. In this blog post, we will explore the Bank of Hawaii Corp Business Model Canvas and understand its key components.

    Key Partnerships

    Bank of Hawaii Corp has established strategic partnerships with various entities to enhance its value proposition and expand its reach. These partnerships include collaborations with technology companies to improve digital banking services, relationships with government agencies to comply with regulatory requirements, and alliances with other financial institutions to offer a wider range of products and services.

    Key Activities

    The key activities of Bank of Hawaii Corp revolve around providing banking and financial services to its customers. These activities include managing customer accounts, processing transactions, lending money, managing investments, and offering wealth management services. Additionally, the bank engages in risk management activities to ensure the safety and soundness of its operations.

    Key Resources

    Bank of Hawaii Corp relies on a combination of tangible and intangible resources to deliver its value proposition. Tangible resources include physical branches, ATMs, and technological infrastructure, while intangible resources include its brand reputation, customer relationships, and expertise of its employees. These resources play a crucial role in maintaining the bank's competitive advantage.

    Value Proposition

    The value proposition of Bank of Hawaii Corp lies in its ability to offer reliable and convenient banking services to individuals, businesses, and government entities. The bank strives to meet the unique needs of its customers by providing personalized solutions, competitive interest rates, and excellent customer service. Moreover, Bank of Hawaii Corp differentiates itself by promoting local economic growth and supporting community initiatives.

    Customer Segments

    Bank of Hawaii Corp serves a diverse range of customer segments, including retail customers, small and medium-sized enterprises, corporate clients, and government agencies. By catering to the specific needs of each segment, the bank is able to effectively address their financial requirements and build lasting relationships.


    The bank employs various channels to deliver its products and services to customers. These channels include physical branches, online and mobile banking platforms, ATMs, call centers, and relationship managers. The multi-channel approach ensures that customers can access banking services conveniently and efficiently, according to their preferred method.

    Customer Relationships

    Establishing and maintaining strong customer relationships is a priority for Bank of Hawaii Corp. The bank achieves this through personalized customer service, proactive communication, and regular engagement. By understanding the unique needs and preferences of its customers, the bank can deliver an exceptional banking experience and build loyalty.

    Revenue Streams

    Bank of Hawaii Corp generates revenue through multiple streams, primarily from interest income on loans and investments, fees and commissions from various financial services, and foreign exchange transactions. The bank's diversified revenue streams provide stability and resilience against market fluctuations.

    Cost Structure

    The cost structure of Bank of Hawaii Corp is composed of both fixed and variable costs. Fixed costs include overhead expenses such as employee salaries, rent, and utilities, while variable costs include transaction processing fees, marketing expenses, and technology investments. The bank focuses on maintaining operational efficiency and cost control measures to ensure profitability.


    The Bank of Hawaii Corp Business Model Canvas provides a comprehensive overview of how the bank creates, delivers, and captures value. By understanding the key components of its business model, we can appreciate the bank's strategic approach in serving its customers, building partnerships, and generating revenue while maintaining cost efficiency.

    Which companies are the competitors of Bank of Hawaii Corp?


    Bank of Hawaii Corp is a leading financial institution in Hawaii and the Pacific Islands region. As a prominent player in the banking industry, it faces competition from several other financial institutions operating in the same markets. This section will delve into the primary competitors of Bank of Hawaii Corp and shed light on their respective strengths and weaknesses.

    Competitor 1: First Hawaiian Bank

    First Hawaiian Bank is one of the oldest and largest banks in Hawaii, established in 1858. It offers a comprehensive range of banking services, including personal and business banking, investment management, and wealth management. With a strong presence in the local market, First Hawaiian Bank competes closely with Bank of Hawaii Corp for customers and market share.


    • Established brand and long-standing reputation in Hawaii.
    • Extensive branch network across the islands, providing convenient access to customers.
    • Diverse portfolio of financial products and services to meet various customer needs.
    • Strong relationships with local businesses and community organizations.


    • Limited presence outside of Hawaii and the Pacific Islands, potentially hindering expansion opportunities.
    • Relatively conservative approach to adopting new technologies compared to some competitors.
    • May face challenges in attracting customers from Bank of Hawaii Corp due to its established market position.

    Competitor 2: Central Pacific Bank

    Central Pacific Bank (CPB) is another prominent competitor of Bank of Hawaii Corp, primarily operating in Hawaii. Founded in 1954, CPB offers a wide range of financial services, including retail banking, wealth management, and commercial lending. It serves individuals, businesses, and the local community through its extensive branch network.


    • Strong focus on local businesses, catering to their specific needs and providing tailored financial solutions.
    • Embracing technological advancements, offering innovative digital banking services and mobile applications.
    • Active community involvement and support, fostering a positive brand image.
    • Well-regarded customer service and personalized banking experience.


    • Smaller market presence compared to Bank of Hawaii Corp and First Hawaiian Bank.
    • Limited branch network outside of Hawaii, potentially limiting its growth potential.
    • May face challenges in competing for market share with larger and more established competitors.

    Competitor 3: American Savings Bank

    American Savings Bank (ASB) is a full-service financial institution operating primarily in Hawaii. Founded in 1925, ASB offers a wide range of banking services, including personal and business banking, mortgages, and loans. It caters to individuals, families, and businesses, aiming to provide financial solutions that meet their specific needs.


    • Strong focus on customer-centric banking, emphasizing personalized relationships and tailored financial solutions.
    • Robust digital and mobile banking platforms, providing convenient and user-friendly experiences for customers.
    • Extensive branch network across Hawaii, ensuring accessibility for customers.
    • Emphasis on community involvement and support, contributing to a positive brand image.


    • Relatively smaller market share compared to Bank of Hawaii Corp and larger competitors.
    • Limited presence outside of Hawaii, potentially limiting growth opportunities.
    • May face challenges in attracting customers from well-established competitors due to brand loyalty and market position.


    Bank of Hawaii Corp operates in a competitive landscape, facing strong competition from established financial institutions such as First Hawaiian Bank, Central Pacific Bank, and American Savings Bank. Each competitor brings its own strengths and weaknesses to the table, making the banking industry in Hawaii and the Pacific Islands region a dynamic and competitive market. Customers benefit from the choices and diverse range of financial services offered by these institutions, while the competition drives innovation and improved customer experiences.

    Bank of Hawaii Corp SWOT Analysis


    • Strong brand presence: Bank of Hawaii Corp has a long-standing reputation in the banking industry and is recognized as one of the leading banks in Hawaii. The bank has built a strong brand presence through its commitment to customer service, community involvement, and financial stability.

    • Diversified revenue streams: The bank's revenue streams are well-diversified, with a range of products and services offered to both retail and commercial customers. This diversification helps to mitigate risks associated with market fluctuations and economic downturns.

    • Robust financial performance: Bank of Hawaii Corp has consistently delivered strong financial results, with a track record of profitability and steady revenue growth. The bank's solid financial performance reflects its ability to effectively manage its assets and liabilities and make strategic investments.


    • Geographical concentration: Bank of Hawaii Corp operates primarily in Hawaii, which exposes it to regional economic risks. Any adverse economic conditions in the state could have a significant impact on the bank's operations and profitability.

    • Limited market share: While Bank of Hawaii Corp is a dominant player in the Hawaiian market, its market share is relatively small when compared to national and international banks. This lack of a large market presence could limit the bank's ability to compete on a broader scale.

    • High operating expenses: The bank's operating expenses have been on the rise, primarily due to increased regulatory compliance costs and investments in technology infrastructure. These high operating expenses could put pressure on the bank's profitability and margins.


    • Expansion into new markets: Bank of Hawaii Corp has the opportunity to expand its operations beyond Hawaii and explore new markets. By leveraging its strong brand reputation and expertise in the banking industry, the bank can potentially tap into new customer segments and diversify its revenue streams.

    • Technological advancements: The digital revolution has transformed the banking industry, and Bank of Hawaii Corp can capitalize on this trend by investing in innovative technologies. Embracing digital banking solutions and enhancing its online and mobile platforms can help the bank attract tech-savvy customers and improve operational efficiency.

    • Growing demand for sustainable finance: As the importance of environmental and social sustainability increases, there is a growing demand for sustainable finance solutions. Bank of Hawaii Corp can seize this opportunity by developing and promoting sustainable banking products and services, catering to the needs of socially responsible customers.


    • Intense competition: The banking industry is highly competitive, with both traditional banks and fintech disruptors vying for market share. Bank of Hawaii Corp faces the threat of losing customers to competitors who offer innovative products, better customer experiences, or lower fees.

    • Economic downturns: Any economic downturn or recession can negatively impact the bank's loan portfolio and increase the risk of loan defaults. A weak economy may also lead to reduced customer spending and a decline in demand for banking products and services.

    • Regulatory challenges: The banking industry is subject to extensive regulations, and compliance with these regulations can be costly and time-consuming. Changes in regulatory requirements or new regulations can pose challenges for Bank of Hawaii Corp, requiring additional investments in compliance measures and potentially impacting its profitability.

    Key Takeaways

    • Bank of Hawaii Corp is owned by a diverse group of shareholders, including institutional investors and individual investors.
    • The mission statement of Bank of Hawaii Corp is to provide exceptional service and innovative financial solutions to its customers, while also contributing to the economic growth and well-being of the communities it serves.
    • Bank of Hawaii Corp generates revenue primarily through its core banking services, including loans, deposits, and various fee-based services such as wealth management and investment banking.
    • The Bank of Hawaii Corp Business Model Canvas explains how the company creates value by focusing on customer relationships, operational efficiency, and strategic partnerships.
    • Some of the key competitors of Bank of Hawaii Corp include other regional banks, national banks, and credit unions operating in the same markets.
    • A SWOT analysis of Bank of Hawaii Corp highlights its strengths in customer service and strong market presence, as well as weaknesses in its reliance on the local economy. It also identifies opportunities for growth in expanding its digital banking services and threats from increasing competition and regulatory challenges.


    In conclusion, Bank of Hawaii Corp is a prominent financial institution that has a strong presence in the Hawaiian market. It is a publicly traded company, so its ownership is distributed among various shareholders. The mission statement of Bank of Hawaii Corp is to provide financial services that enhance the well-being of its customers, employees, and communities.

    The bank generates revenue through various avenues, including interest income from loans, fees from banking services, and investment activities. Its business model is built on providing a wide range of financial products and services to individuals, businesses, and institutions.

    When analyzing the competitive landscape, Bank of Hawaii Corp faces competition from other major financial institutions operating in Hawaii, such as First Hawaiian Bank and American Savings Bank. These competitors strive to attract the same customer base and offer similar financial services.

    Furthermore, conducting a SWOT analysis of Bank of Hawaii Corp reveals its strengths, such as its strong brand presence and extensive branch network, as well as weaknesses like exposure to economic fluctuations. The bank also has opportunities to expand its operations and diversify its revenue streams, but it must be cautious of external threats such as regulatory changes and increasing competition.

    Overall, Bank of Hawaii Corp has established itself as a reputable and successful financial institution, constantly adapting to the evolving needs of its customers and striving to provide exceptional banking services.


    What is a SWOT analysis for a bank?

    A SWOT analysis for a bank evaluates its strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. Here is an example of a SWOT analysis for a bank:


    1. Strong brand reputation and recognition.
    2. Extensive network of branches and ATMs.
    3. Robust financial position and strong capital base.
    4. Diverse range of banking products and services.
    5. Well-established customer base.
    6. Skilled and experienced workforce.


    1. Reliance on traditional brick-and-mortar banking, which may limit accessibility for some customers.
    2. Limited focus on digital banking and technological innovations.
    3. Slow decision-making process due to hierarchical structure.
    4. High operating costs.
    5. Vulnerability to economic fluctuations and regulatory changes.
    6. Limited presence in international markets.


    1. Growing demand for digital banking services.
    2. Expansion into emerging markets with untapped customer base.
    3. Offering specialized financial products and services to cater to specific customer segments.
    4. Collaborating with fintech companies to enhance digital capabilities.
    5. Increasing customer engagement through personalized and tailored offerings.
    6. Leveraging data analytics to gain insights into customer behavior and preferences.


    1. Intense competition from other banks and financial institutions.
    2. Increasing cybersecurity risks and fraud attempts.
    3. Stringent regulatory requirements and compliance costs.
    4. Low-interest-rate environment affecting profitability.
    5. Economic downturns impacting loan quality and credit risk.
    6. Changing customer expectations and preferences.

    It is important to note that the specific SWOT analysis for a bank may vary based on its size, geographical reach, target market, and other factors.

    How can I find a SWOT analysis on a company?

    There are several ways to find a SWOT analysis on a company:

    1. Company website: Start by visiting the company's official website. Some companies publish their SWOT analysis in their annual reports, investor presentations, or corporate social responsibility reports.

    2. SEC filings: Publicly traded companies in the United States are required to file various reports with the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC). These filings, such as the annual 10-K report, often include a section on the company's SWOT analysis. You can access these filings through the SEC's EDGAR database at www.sec.gov/edgar.

    3. Business databases: Utilize business databases like Bloomberg, Hoovers, or Marketline to access SWOT analyses. These databases compile comprehensive information on companies, including SWOT analyses, industry reports, and financial data. Some of these platforms might require a subscription or access through educational institutions.

    4. Industry reports: Look for industry reports from market research firms or industry-specific publications. These reports often include SWOT analyses for various companies within the industry. You can find such reports through research organizations like IBISWorld, Statista, or Gartner.

    5. Business news and articles: Search for articles or news reports about the company you're interested in. Sometimes, business publications or news websites publish SWOT analyses or discussions on a company's strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats.

    6. Academic resources: Check academic databases like JSTOR, ProQuest, or Google Scholar. Sometimes, scholars or researchers publish SWOT analyses on specific companies as part of their research papers or case studies.

    Remember that SWOT analyses are not always readily available for every company, especially for privately held companies. In such cases, you may need to rely on industry reports, news articles, or academic sources to gather information and construct your own SWOT analysis.

    What is SWOT analysis for commercial banks?

    SWOT analysis is a strategic planning tool used to evaluate the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of an organization. When applied to commercial banks, SWOT analysis helps in assessing the bank's internal and external factors that can impact its performance and competitiveness. Here is a breakdown of each component for commercial banks:

    1. Strengths:
    • Strong brand reputation and recognition in the market.
    • Large customer base and extensive branch network.
    • Diversified product and service offerings.
    • Sound financial position and healthy capital adequacy ratio.
    • Skilled and experienced workforce.
    • Advanced technology infrastructure and digital banking capabilities.
    1. Weaknesses:
    • High operating costs due to the maintenance of physical branches.
    • Slow decision-making process and bureaucratic structures.
    • Limited flexibility in adapting to changing market conditions.
    • Lack of innovation and inability to keep up with emerging technologies.
    • Regulatory compliance challenges and increasing regulatory burden.
    1. Opportunities:
    • Growing demand for digital banking services.
    • Expansion into new markets or geographic regions.
    • Strategic partnerships and collaborations with fintech companies.
    • Increased focus on sustainable finance and responsible banking.
    • Changing customer preferences and needs.
    1. Threats:
    • Intense competition from other commercial banks and non-banking financial institutions.
    • Economic downturns and financial crises.
    • Regulatory changes and compliance requirements.
    • Cybersecurity threats and data breaches.
    • Increasing customer expectations and demands for personalized services.

    By conducting a SWOT analysis, commercial banks can identify their competitive advantages, areas of improvement, potential growth opportunities, and potential risks. This analysis serves as a foundation for developing strategic plans, allocating resources effectively, and making informed decisions to enhance their overall performance and profitability.

    What are the 4 areas of SWOT analysis?

    The four areas of SWOT analysis are:

    1. Strengths: These are the internal factors that give an organization an advantage over others. Strengths could include unique resources, strong brand image, skilled workforce, or advanced technology.

    2. Weaknesses: These are the internal factors that place an organization at a disadvantage compared to others. Weaknesses could include limited financial resources, outdated technology, lack of skilled workforce, or poor brand reputation.

    3. Opportunities: These are the external factors that could potentially benefit an organization. Opportunities could arise from market trends, new technologies, changes in government policies, or emerging customer needs.

    4. Threats: These are the external factors that could potentially harm an organization. Threats could include intense competition, economic downturns, changing consumer preferences, or legal and regulatory challenges.

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